光害對生態和人體的負面影響 Adverse Effects of Light Pollution on the Environment and on Human

有研究還指出光害可能對生態造成負面影響。過量的晚間照明,或會擾亂依賴日夜規律的動物的生理週期,亦會誤導牠們的活動方向,嚴重甚至影響生態平衡。例子包括 (Travis and Catherine 2004):

Light pollution may also cause adverse effects on environmental and ecosystem. Excessive outdoor lightings may disorient physiological cycles and the movements of animals. In the worst scenario, it would even influence the entire ecological balance of the local living environment. For example:

  • 鳥類的飛行受照明影響,誤導牠們撞上建築物而身亡。
  • 在晚間遷移的鳥類會被人為照明誤導飛行方向,一旦牠們被照明吸引,便不會飛離。
  • Birds that are waylaid by buildings in urban areas at night often die in collisions with windows. (Squires and Hanson 1918, etc)
  • Nocturnally migrating birds can be disoriented and entrapped by lights at night. Once a bird is within a lighted zone at night, it may become "trapped" and will not leave the lighted area. (Ogden 1996)
  • 大量飛娥、蜻蜓、甲蟲、飛蠶、蚊子、黃蜂等昆蟲會被照明吸引聚集,因無法飛離而死亡。
  • Many groups of insects, including moths, lacewings, beetles, bugs, caddisflies, crane flies, midges, hoverflies, wasps, bush crickets are attracted by lights and died. (Frank 1988, Eisenbeis and Hassel 2000, Kolligs 2000)
  • 雌性海龜被海灘附近的照明影響其產卵行為。
  • 原本在白天獵食的鳥類和爬蟲類因人為室外照明,增加了牠們在晚上的獵食機會,令被捕獵的物種減少。
  • Disorientation lighting on sandy beaches affects the egg-laying behavior of female sea turtles. (Salmon 2003, Witherington 1997)
  • Many diurnal birds and reptiles, for example, forage under artificial lights. This has been termed the "night light niche" for reptiles and seems beneficial for those species that can exploit it, but not for their prey. (Schwartz and Henderson 1991)
  • 野外環境的照明亮度增加,令晚間動物如青蛙喪失天然夜視能力,強烈的照明甚至會弄瞎牠們。
  • Changes in light level may disrupt orientation in nocturnal animals. The range of anatomical adaptations to allow night vision is broad and rapid increases in light intensity can blind animals. (Buchanan 1993)
  • 至於光害對人類生理的負面影響,我們所知不多。你可能聽過,居住地方接近燈箱廣告招牌或球場照明等的人,可能會被過分的照明而感煩惱,被迫拉上厚厚的窗簾,甚至因強烈的照明而難以入睡。其實近年環保處的確收到市民針對光害的投訴,每年大約有30-40宗。但如果室外照明及人們對光害的認識增加,被過分照明影響而投訴的人數或會上升。
  • There is little known on the adverse effects of light pollution on human physiology. You may have heard stories of people living in the immediate vicinity of neon signboard and sports fields annoyed by the excessive illumination. These people are forced to surround their living environments with thick curtains or else they cannot get a proper sleeping environment in their own home. The Environmental Protection Department of the Hong Kong government currently receives about 30-40 complaints on abuse of lightings each year. The number of persons affected may increase in the future due to the growing use of outdoor lighting and due to the increase awareness of the public on the issue of light pollution.

(Health Council of the Netherlands: Impact of outdoor lighting on man and nature. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2000; publication no. 2000/25E)
Pictures source: Wikimedia Commons



參考資料 Reference:

  • Buchanan BW. 1993. Effects of enhanced lighting on the behaviour of nocturnal frogs. Anim Behav 45: 893–99.
  • Catherine Rich, Travis Longcore, Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting, Island Press
  • Eisenbeis G and Hassel F. 2000. Zur Anziehung nachtaktiver Insekten durch Strasenlaternen – eine Studie kommunaler Beleuchtungseinrichtungen in der Agrarlandschaft Reinhessens [Attraction of nocturnal insects to street lights – a study of municipal lighting systems in a rural area of Rheinhessen (Germany)]. Natur und Landschaft 75: 145–56.
  • Frank KD. 1988. Impact of outdoor lighting on moths: an assessment. J Lepidop Soc 42: 63–93.
  • Health Council of the Netherlands: Impact of outdoor lighting on man and nature. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2000; publication no. 2000/25E.
  • Kolligs D. 2000. Okologische Auswirkungen kunstlicher Lichtquellen
    auf nachtaktive Insekten, insbesondere Schmetterlinge (Lepidoptera) [Ecological effects of artificial light sources on nocturnally active insects, in particular on moths (Lepidoptera)]. Faunistisch-Okologische Mitteilungen Suppl 28: 1–136.
  • Ogden LJE. 1996. Collision course: the hazards of lighted structures and windows to migrating birds. Toronto, Canada: World Wildlife Fund Canada and Fatal Light Awareness Program.
  • Salmon M. 2003. Artificial night lighting and sea turtles. Biologist 50: 163–68.
  • Schwartz A and Henderson RW. 1991. Amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies: descriptions, distributions, and natural history. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press.
  • Squires WA and Hanson HE. 1918. The destruction of birds at the lighthouses on the coast of California. Condor 20: 6–10.
  • Travis Longcore and Catherine Rich, Ecological light pollution, Front Ecol Environ 2004; 2(4): 191–198
  • Witherington BE. 1997. The problem of photopollution for sea turtles and other nocturnal animals. In: Clemmons JR and Buchholz R (Eds). Behavioral approaches to conservation in the wild. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.